Powerful Organophosphate Exposure Treatments
DISCLAIMER: CONSULT WITH A DOCTOR BEFORE DECIDING ON A TREATMENT PLAN FOR ANY DISEASE OR INJURY.
Methylene blue is an anti-poison medication that can specifically help alleviate the symptoms of acute organophosphate exposure/poisoning. One report of a man who had intentionally ingested dimethoate notes that administration of methylene blue was able to successfully counteract some of the effects of organophosphate poisoning. The methylene blue reduced organophosphate-induced hypotension and hemodynamic instability within 6 hours of administration, and these effects were maintained even after the methylene blue therapy was stopped. The report suggested that these effects may be related to methylene blue’s ability to inhibit nitric oxide synthase, thereby increasing nitric oxide levels.
In this case report, methylene blue was administered in two separate doses. The first dose was given at a dose of 129 mg in an IV, and the second dose was 65 mg administered also via IV. The doses were administered 4 hours apart from each other and were given after other conventional treatments (including pralidoxime, atropine, hemodialysis, vasopressors of norepinephrine, vasopressin, and epinephrine, and fluids for hydration) were unsuccessful in stabilizing or improving the man’s condition.
Other studies on bees have suggested that methylene blue may also work to counteract the toxic effects of exposure to organophosphates and other pesticides by encouraging mitochondrial respiration and repairing the mitochondrial membrane.
Activated Carbon / Activated Charcoal
Activated carbon, also known as activated charcoal, is an important detoxifying agent that is used in a variety of contexts, such as to help remove heavy metals, bacteria, fungi, toxic waste, and more. It is a gentle but powerful detoxifier that can be used by almost anyone or any age (including in children, pregnant women, and the elderly). Make sure to drink plenty of water and stay well-hydrated when using activated charcoal, and be aware that its use, especially in higher doses, may turn stools a dark or even black color.
One study observed that though activated charcoal isn’t able to target and remove organophosphates that have already been absorbed into the bloodstream, that orally administered activated charcoal can help remove them from the gastrointestinal tract. Note that some places do offer intravenous activated charcoal therapies, which may be better suited to cases of chronic organophosphate exposure where organophosphates may be present beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Another study observed that activated charcoal was able to effectively reduce the presence of phosphates in water.
Activated carbon may also be valuable in the treatment of organophosphate exposure in that it can help remove other toxins or pathogens present in the body, thus making other organophosphate exposure treatments more effective. Reduction of toxic load and detoxification support are essential for any treatment protocol for any health problem.
Molecular hydrogen is an accessible antioxidant therapy for a wide range of health conditions. It has been shown to help treat cystic fibrosis, COPD, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, Lyme disease, emphysema, pancreatitis, brain injury, and more. Molecular hydrogen may be administered in the form of molecular hydrogen water, or may be breathed in through the mouth and nose similarly to oxygen therapy. Some places outside of the United States may also offer intravenous molecular hydrogen therapy. Molecular hydrogen is extremely nontoxic in all of these forms and may be administered to anyone of any age.
One study observed that administration of molecular hydrogen water to rats over the course of 8 weeks was able to minimize the liver damage done by chlorpyrifos, a commonly used organophosphate pesticide. Molecular hydrogen water also helped prevent the expression of 8 different genes expressed in response to chlorpyrifos exposure, and alleviated the damage caused to mitochondria following organophosphate exposure.
Hemodialysis / Dialysis Treatment
Hemodialysis (which is sometimes referred to as simply “dialysis”) is a blood purification treatment where the patient’s blood is removed, filtered, and then reinjected via an IV. The treatment is usually done in stages, with the patient hooked up to a special machine called a dialyser that systematically removes and filters their blood through an IV before reinjecting the clean, filtered blood into the patient’s bloodstream. Hemodialysis is a commonly used treatment for kidney failure, though it’s also used for other conditions where the kidneys are struggling to keep up with the process of purification due to toxic load.
Regardless of whether a person is exposed to them via the oral route, through the skin, or by other means, organophosphates often end up circulating in the blood, which can lead to problems with detoxification in minor cases and renal failure in severe or acute situations of organophosphate poisoning. One case report describes a man who was treated using 3 sessions of hemodialysis in combination with noradrenaline to successfully alleviate renal failure that occurred as a result of accidental inhalation of diazinon, an organophosphate pesticide. The man recovered completely following this course of treatment and didn’t have any setbacks in his condition in the time following the treatment.
Packed Red Blood Cell Transfusion
One study observed a group of test group patients who received the standard care for organophosphate poisoning (gastric lavage/stomach pump, atropine, and pralidoxime) in addition to transfusions of packed red blood cells. In the study’s test group, patients received packed RBC’s 3 hours after poisoning, and then if no improvement was seen after 10 hours, patients received another 200-400 mL transfusion.
In this study, the mortality rate was significantly lower in patients who received packed RBC transfusions. In patients who received fresh RBC’s, the mortality rate was 0%, while patients who received RBC’s that had been stored had a mortality rate of 8.7% (in contrast with patients who didn’t receive any RBC’s, in which case the mortality rate was 16.67%, approximately double that of the test patients). The patients who received fresh packed RBC transfusions in particular tended to have significantly higher levels of acetylcholinesterase even after only one transfusion; patients who received stored RBC’s also had an increase in acetylcholinesterase levels.
This increase in acetylcholinesterase levels is likely to be one of the primary mechanisms through which the administration of packed red blood cells works to heal patients with organophosphate poisoning. This is because higher acetylcholinesterase levels would mean lower acetylcholine levels, and therefore less chance of the acetylcholine receptors being overstimulated.
Patients who received packed red blood cell transfusions after organophosphate exposure experienced shorter hospital stays, faster recovery time, and required less atropine than other patients.
N-Acetyl Cysteine / NAC
NAC is a powerful antioxidant supplement that can be used to enhance male and female fertility and to treat lung disease, respiratory infection, acetaminophen poisoning, cyanide poisoning, inflammation and inflammatory conditions, cataracts, and more. It is a very safe supplement with low toxicity for individuals of all ages, and may be taken at a dose of up to 2400 mg per day. Read more about how to use and dose NAC in this article.
One study observed the therapeutic effects of NAC on male mice who had been exposed to chlorpyrifos. In the NAC-treated mice, sperm parameters were significantly better than those of mice who hadn’t received NAC. It’s also worth noting that the anti poison effects of NAC may be of benefit in the treatment of organophosphate exposure/poisoning.
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Other Important Links:
Youseffi, Nick D., et. al. (2015). Methylene Blue is Effective to Reverse Refractory Hemodynamic Instability due to Dimethoate Poisoning. Retrieved November 14, 2022 from: https://apjmt.mums.ac.ir/article_4915_deea4d2b4e18a291f78db150c6fa369c.pdf
Syromyatnikov, Mikhail, et. al. (2021). Methylene blue can act as an antidote to pesticide poisoning of bumble bee mitochondria. Retrieved November 14, 2022 from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-94231-3
Tomimaru, A., et. al. (1996). Effect of activated charcoal and atropine on absorption and/or exsorption of organophosphorus compounds in rats. Retrieved November 14, 2022 from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8794982/
Ouakouak, Abdelkader, et. al. (2016). Phosphates Removal by Activated Carbon. Retrieved November 14, 2022 from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305930385_Phosphates_Removal_by_Activated_Carbon
Xun, Zhi-Ming, et. al. (2020). Protective effects of molecular hydrogen on hepatotoxicity induced by sub-chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos in rats. Retrieved November 14, 2022 from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32955216/
Rubio, C. R. et al. (2012). Acute renal failure due to the inhalation of organophosphates: successful treatment with haemodialysis. Retrieved October 2, 2022 from https://academic.oup.com/ckj/article/5/6/582/338479
Bao, Hang-xing, et. al. (2017). Efficacy of fresh packed red blood transfusion in organophosphate poisoning. Retrieved November 14, 2022 from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5369934/
Kheradmandi, Rasoul, et. al. (2019). Protective Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine of Chlorpyrifos-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice. Retrieved November 14, 2022 from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334019/